WHY NOT MAKE IT A GAME?
It is quite common to think that IT automatically supports and enriches learning, especially motivation for learning. There are studies that implicate increase in motivation (Connolly ym., 2012). When we are taking a look at long-term effects, the results are not as clear as you might think.
Flashy games may grab the focus of the user at first. In long-term use, the visual and audial noise can overload user’s senses and become an obstacle for learning ((Kirschner, 2002; Lehtinen ym., 2014; Mayer ym., 2008).
With PURO we approach learning, not by gaming but making a calm interface. Still, there is no reason to leave the good qualities of learning games without notice, especially when a new subject of learning needs to practised furthermore.
The following properties should be present in a learning game, if one is to be used for automating learning of the studied content (Hattie, 2009):
The user should have a constant awareness of the skill or subject which is to be learned or practised.
The user can control one´s learning during the game
The game should give a clear and instant feedback on answers
The challenging level of the game should rise following the pace of the user
Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., MacArthur, E., Hainely, T., Boyle, J. M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers & Education, 59, 661-686.)
Hattie, J. A. C. Visible learning. A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. USA, NY: Routledge.
Kirschner, P. A. (2002). Cognitive load theory: Implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 12, 1–10.
Lehtinen, E., Lehtinen, H. & Brezovszky, B. (2014). Matematiikka pelissä. Teoksessa L. Krokfors, M. Kangas & K. Kopisto (toim.) Oppiminen pelissä. Pelit, pelillisyys ja leikillisyys opetuksessa (s. 38-55). Tampere: Vastapaino.
Mayer, R. E., Griffith, E., Jurkowitz, I. T. N., & Rothman, D. (2008). Increased interestingness of extraneous details in a multimedia science presentation leads to decreased learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 329-339.